Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Human Suffering essays

Human Suffering articles Human enduring happens each day, all over the place, from multiple points of view surrounding us. We don't generally observe it, however that doesn't mean it doesn't exist. At the point when we do see it exist we usually ask ourselves, Does human enduring have meaning? I can respond to this inquiry without any problem. Truly, it has meaning. I can answer this in light of the four readings we read. Nonetheless, as I inspect this inquiry more profound I see that the four readings have various thoughts on signifying or the purpose behind misery. Taking a gander at the meaning of the action word (to) endure, feel or experience torment; continue harm or misfortune, we see that enduring is something that can happen in light of more than one activity. Every one of the readings clarified an alternate method of anguish. In their nuts and bolts, some depicted mental misery and others portrayed physical torment. In any case, more profoundly than that each perusing contains a particular sort of torment. The Epic of Gilgamesh depicts that enduring is brought about by death. The Book of Job des! cribes how enduring is brought about by affliction, loss of assets, or friends and family. Buddhist clarifies enduring brought about by our psychological anguish. Night depicts enduring brought about by others. These readings give us importance to affliction so that later on we can abstain from anguish, and on the off chance that we can not maintain a strategic distance from it we can at any rate clarify it. The Epic of Gilgamesh discloses to us that enduring happens as a result of adoration. Gilgamesh endured simply because he adored Enkidu. After Enkidu was executed by the snake Gilgamesh endured immensely. This was a model mental torment. Gilgamesh didn't welcome on Enkidu's demise. It was his longing for Enkidu to bite the dust. It simply happened battling the snake. He profoundly grieved his sibling's demise. This drove him to locate that extraordinary root to make him undying. Despite the fact that this was only a story, in its day it was believed to be a book of lessons. Endur ing was an immediate consequence of death and love, yet it was enduring that drove Gilgamesh ... <!

Saturday, August 22, 2020

A Comparison of Francis Bacon and Carolus Linnaeus' View of Nature and Essay

A Comparison of Francis Bacon and Carolus Linnaeus' View of Nature and Humanity's Relationship to It - Essay Example This recurrence is sufficient to reflect and prove the perspective on nature as instruments. Instrumentation purposes differ from internment to agriculture, therapeutic or treatment purposes, outfitting of crude materials, and so forth. A similar view was depicted by Linnaeus; â€Å"when we follow the arrangement of made things, and consider how fortunately one is made for another, the issue results in these present circumstances, that everything is made for man† (3). While Bacon perceived nature as an instrument to human needs, Linnaeus facilitated this by calling attention to how every part of nature was intended to be made valuable for people. Nature as Local. Strangely, Bacon embroiled that nature’s instrumentation was to a great extent controlled by area. While internment was done in the Lower Region, observatories were arranged in the Upper Region. Therefore, nature presents a cutoff by which instrumentation is reasonable or not fitting, and this reality was regar ded by the individuals of Salomon’s House. A similar actuality was involved via Carolus Linnaeus in his The Economy of Nature. His acknowledgment of the co-area of natural surroundings and specific types of greenery was communicated through his affirmation of the divergent examples of seasons, just as the difference in soil arrangement (Linnaeus 2). Also, Linnaeus unequivocally communicated this: â€Å"How shrewd, how excellent is the understanding between the plants of each nation, and its occupants, and other circumstances!† (2). Nature as the Framework of Imitation. Bacon’s see recommended that the operations of nature filled in as the form by which people imitate certain procedures for the ideal yield. This impersonation was expressly definite: â€Å"We use them in like manner for the impersonation of normal mines...,† or â€Å"We have warms in impersonation of the sun’s and magnificent bodies’ warms, that pass divers[e] inequalities... † (Bacon 3-5). Hence, it is protected to expect that early procedures that were supposed to be ‘invented’ by early people were likely types of mimicry out of the recognizable regular procedures. Nature as Something to be Improved. The acknowledgment of nature’s defect was common; yet, this flaw was seen by Bacon just with regards to the human’s wanted yield. This was articulated in the field of agriculture wherein the act of joining, immunizing, and developing de-seeded plants was normal (Bacon 4). Additionally, the quest for understanding the impacts of verdure on people, regardless of whether fortunate or unfortunate, was characteristic in planned structures or nooks (Bacon 4). A similar view was seen by Linneaus; he proceeded to clarify that by prudence of human thinking, people can spread parts of nature (i.e., vegetables), and declared that if nature was â€Å"left to herself, could hardly effect† (3). Consequently, Linnaeus, much the sam e as Bacon, considered human to be as the vital way to empower nature to turn out to be completely or entirely deliberate. Nature as an Unending Cycle of Life and Death. Linnaeus portrayed this cycle through the vegetable-to-shape and form to-vegetable similarity. His central matter was that vegetation is contained a similar composite - the dark form; in this way, he stated, â€Å"So that the tallest tree is, appropriately, only shape magnificently aggravated with air and water...† (Linnaeus 3). Thus, this view involves how inescapable and ordinary demise is. Additionally, passing is seen a need for a crisp start in the pattern of normal creation. Nature as Designed to be Biodiverse. The ramifications of nature’s biodiversity were effectively introduced by Linnaeus. He proffered biodiversity as the arrangement in controlling the number of inhabitants in species, the

Tuesday, July 28, 2020

May Update for Fall 2014 Transfers - UGA Undergraduate Admissions

May Update for Fall 2014 Transfers - UGA Undergraduate Admissions May Update for Fall 2014 Transfers We are continuing to work diligently on our review the 2014 Fall transfer applications. At this time, we have made roughly 1300 decisions of the 2400 applications (2000 or so who are complete) we received this year. Based on this weeks numbers, we are averaging about 70 decisions being made per day, which is an increase over our traditional average in our old system. In looking at past years, while we are behind our normal timeline, I do not project we will be too far off historically by late-May. We have been reviewing some of our more challenging applications, but we still have a number that we are having to build the transfer articulation for prior to making any offer of admission. Please remember we cannot tell you when you will have a decision as this depends on many factors. Applications are generally processed in the order in which the file was completed, but this is not always the case, as some files are more challenging, are from colleges where we are having to build a catalog in the new system, or are just complex. As well, I am not able to look at each individual file to see why someone did nor did not receive a decision based on X date. A majority of the applications completed by the end of March or earlier have been reviewed with some exceptions, and we are working on a number of files completed in the first week of April. Please remember that if you are transferring from an out-of-state college or a college we have not had many students apply from, your application may take a bit longer to review and thus the timeline would not be correct for your situation. Transfer decisions are updated daily on the status check, and the myStatus page is updated at about 6 am every morning. If you have been admitted and want to see how your courses transferred, you can use the transfer equivalency chart off the admissions website. If you have submitted a deposit (fall transfer and beyond requirement), you can log on toDegreeWorks to view your transfer work. Visit the Orientation site as well to learn about your next stepsand to register for a session. I hope this helps, and I will try to keep everyone updated.

Friday, May 22, 2020

study guide Essay - 892 Words

Biodiversity study guide 1. Briefly describe how our species started to appreciate the biodiversity of the planet (in a geographical and historical context)? Through the concept of evolution, ecology, population, community and the environment. Species through different periods evolve physiologically and adapting to new environments. Animals who can’t live or survive in certain regions either migrate or die. Common ancestors often link to present day organisms showing biologically and different aspects of adaptations. 2. Early naturalists tended to gather biodiversity information in a slightly different manner compared to modern biologists. Explain. Back in the day naturalists didn’t have advanced technological equipment and not†¦show more content†¦Bees would collect food resources from the plant and in return the reproduction of the plants) 6. How did Carl von Linne (Linneaus) contribute to the field of biology? He is the father of taxonomy. 7. What are the different taxonomic levels (in order from the largest to the smallest taxon)? Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 8. What is the purpose of taxonomy? How is it used in biology? [see Taxonomy] The purpose of taxonomy is to describe and classify the different types of organisms that roam the continents into groups Genus and species. In biology it’s used to classify organism using latin names and to narrow down 1 organism from Kingdom to species. 9. How many species have been described (i.e. the total number of species named and categorized)? [Study the images below] ~ 1.8 million species have been classified. 10. Which is the most dominating taxon within the animal kingdom in terms of species diversity (making up approximately 25% of all known species)? [clue: which insect order?]. Phylum: Arthropoda, Order: Coleoptera 11. The phylum Arthropoda [meaning joint-footed] is the largest described taxon on the planet in terms of species diversity. The phylum includes all types of insects, crustaceans, spiders, millipedes and centipedes. What is percentage of the phylum Arthropoda of all known animal species? 80% 12. Study the diagram of all known organisms below. What percentage is made up of animal species?Show MoreRelatedEssay on The Importance of Heritage in Everyday Use829 Words   |  4 PagesAnswers. ENotes - Literature Study Guides, Lesson Plans, and More. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. http://www.enotes.com/everyday-use/q-and-a/what-theme-everyday-use-how-that-theme-2192. SparkNotes: Everyday Use: Analysis of Major Characters. SparkNotes: Todays Most Popular Study Guides. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. http://www.sparknotes.com/short-stories/everyday-use/canalysis.html. SparkNotes: Everyday Use: Themes, Motifs, and Symbols. SparkNotes: Todays Most Popular Study Guides. 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Would they want to live forever why or why not? * Have students fill out the anticipatory guide activity *give students the list of vocabulary words from prologue to chapter 5 *Before the students look up theRead MoreStudy Guide1489 Words   |  6 PagesEN1320 Composition I SYLLABUS AND STUDY GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS SYLLABUS.......................................................................................................................................................................1 Course Summary........................................................................................................................................................2 Learning Materials and References ..............................................Read MoreStudy Guide760 Words   |  4 PagesStudy guide for Microbiology Chapter 2 Name________________ 1. List and describe the sequence steps routinely used to identify bacteria. These are referred to as the â€Å"five I’s† in your text. 2. Define / describe each of the following as they apply to microbiology: a. Culture f. pure culture b. Inoculum g. contaminated culture c. Inoculation h. mixed culture d. Colony 3. Microbiologists employee a number of approached to acquiring a pure cultureRead MoreStudy Guide2675 Words   |  11 PagesLAW/421 Final Examination Study Guide This study guide will prepare you for the Final Examination you will complete in Week Five. It contains practice questions, which are related to each week’s objectives. In addition, refer to each week’s readings and your student guide as study references for the Final Examination. Week One: Introduction to Law Objective: Define the functions of law in society. 1. Precedent evolves from a. state and federal constitutions b. state and federalRead MoreStudy Guide2309 Words   |  10 PagesMGT 443 FIRST EXAM STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1 QUIZ 1) Which of the following is NOT one of the processes included in operations management? o Finance 2) Structural operations management decisions include: o Capacity, facilities, and technology 3) Physical goods can be differentiated from services in the operations management process by: o Longer lead times and they can be inventoried 4) Which of the following functions would not have to think about â€Å"processes†Read MoreStudy Guide1605 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Answer Key Top of Form Question 1 (Worth 5 points) Which of the following was evidence to support Vanzettis innocence during the Braintree robbery and double murder trial? No witness claimed to see Vanzetti during the shooting. Witnesses placed Vanzetti elsewhere during the crime. Vanzetti feared for his safety and that of his friends. Vanzettis gun had not been used in the shooting. Points earned on this question: 5 Question 2 (Worth 5 points) What was the significance ofRead MoreStudy Guide2481 Words   |  10 Pages MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which action demonstrates that the nurse understands the purpose of the Rapid Response Team? a. Monitoring the client for changes in postoperative status such as wound infection b. Documenting all changes observed in the client and maintaining a postoperative flow sheet c. Notifying the physician of the client’s change in blood pressure from 140 to 88 mm Hg systolic d. Notifying the physician of the client’s increase in restlessness after medication change ANS: C The RapidRead MoreStudy Guide7621 Words   |  31 Pagesorganizations within the modern and fast†paced business environment (Caldwell, Chatman, OReilly,1990). Human Resources specialists are more important in business strategies today where market is dynamic and changeable. 1.1. 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Saturday, May 9, 2020

Rousseau s The Social Contract - 1588 Words

The following texts, Rousseau s The Social Contract, Marx’s Private Property and Communism, Estranged Labor and Money, all differentiate between a general will, and a more personal, individual will. However, Rousseau’s and Marx’s theories of a general will, or collective being have discrepancies in both the origin and implications of general will and individual will. Rousseau defines general will as a collective desire to advance society towards a common goal. However, Rousseau warns that ignoring the general will and pursuing one’s own selfish personal will is dangerous not only for an individual, but can also ultimately lead to the destruction of the body politic. Marx also discusses a concept similar to Rousseau’s general will, however†¦show more content†¦Additionally, Rousseau believes that self-interests are often detrimental to the common good, stating that â€Å"each individual, as a man, may have a particular will contrary or diss imilar to the general will which he has as a citizen. His particular interest may speak to him quite differently from the common interest: his absolute and naturally independent existence may make him look upon what he owes to the common cause as a gratuitous contribution... The continuance of such an injustice could not but prove the undoing of the body politic. (Rousseau, 194-195). It is evident that Rousseau is aware of humankind’s selfish desires stemming from a personal will, and he believes that if individuals begin to ignore the common will and instead act upon their personal desires and will, that it will often lead to pandemonium. This chaos is likely to destroy any Republic, as conflicting and selfish ideals will cause individuals to lose sight of the general will, leading to the collapse of a coexisting society. Rousseau, however, does not address how individual will originates, a point that Marx discusses in length in his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts. The epitome of the detrimental effects caused by one acting purely on personal will can be seen in the film, American Beauty. In this film, Lester Burnham can be seen acting upon his personal will and ignoring the collective good in hisShow MoreRelatedThe Rousseau s Thesis And Social Contract1548 Words   |  7 PagesTo better understand Rousseau’s thesis and social contract he proposed, we must first understand why Rousseau felt compelled to write and his main criticism of society during the 18th century. In sum, Rousseau argued that states (specifically France, though never explicitly stated) have not protected man’s right to freedom or equality. Rousseau began The Social Contract in dramatic fashion. He wrote, â€Å"man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains† (1). This quote is still used today, and isRead MoreAn Analysis Of Rousseau s On The Social Contract 898 Words   |  4 PagesFinding Meaning in Rousseau In â€Å"On the Social Contract,† Jean-Jacques Rousseau famously declares, â€Å"Man was/is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.† In this essay, I will attempt to explain this famous quote of Rousseau’s. Moreover, through a careful exposition of â€Å"On the Social Contract,† I intend to explain Rousseau’s proposed solution to the conundrum of freedom in society. The preliminary investigation into Rousseau originates with an account of his assertion that, â€Å"Man was/is bornRead MoreJean Jacque Rousseau s Theory Of A Social Contract881 Words   |  4 Pages Jean Jacque Rousseau was one of the most controversial philosophers from 1712-1778. The first to speak explicitly of human rights. 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In his work, Discourse on Inequality, establishes the idea of a fraudulent social contractRead MoreMontesquieu s Spirit Of Laws And Jean Jacques Rousseau s On The Social Contract1620 Words   |  7 Pagesgovernment or the people who permit the government to exist? This is the main point of contention between Baron de Montesquieu s Spirit of Laws and Jean-Jacques Rousseau s On the Social Contract. Interestingly, their interpretation of different forms of government converge on the sovereignty of a democracy, but that is where most of their common ground lies. While Rousseau shares similarities on the sovereign authority of a democracy with Montesquieu, he departs by arguing how regardless of governmentRead MoreThe Social Contract ( P153-224 ) Essay1275 Words   |  6 Pa gesThe normative social contract, which is the second part of Rousseau s social contract in The Social Contract (p153-224), is meant to act as a response to the problem to which the social contract is supposed to be the viable solution. According to him the ill-favoured state of circumstances that exist in the contemporary societies are laid out in his account of the moral and political progression of human beings from the peaceful and utopian time of the state of nature where there was equality amongstRead MoreJacques And The Social Contract Theory1287 Words   |  6 Pagesliberties. (Rousseau lecture1) Moreover Rousseau paid great attention to nature and human feelings. He claimed that humans are naturally independent and held a belief that ‘’man is born free and everywhere he is in chains’’ (Rousseau, 2012, pg. 12 ) arguing that people in the state of nature were fundamentally good and pure but became corrupt and evil through the institution of civili sed society (lecture). On the contrary, Rousseau remains to be a huge supporter of the social contract theory, whichRead MoreRousseau, Mill, And Constant Articulated By Unpacking Essay1663 Words   |  7 Pagesdistinctively different. Rousseau, Mill, and Constant exhibit a very different view of the modernizing society. This paper seeks to point out the distinct visions of liberty that Rousseau, Mill, and Constant articulated by unpacking the central premises of each argument, pitting them against each other through comparing and contrasting. Rousseau’s Vision of Liberty Although, Rousseau distinguishes two specific types of liberty, natural liberty and civil liberty. Rousseau states, that naturalRead MoreRousseau, Mill, And Constant Articulated By Unpacking Essay1656 Words   |  7 Pagesdistinctively different. Rousseau, Mill, and Constant exhibit a very different view of the modernizing society. This paper seeks to flash out the distinct visions of liberty that Rousseau, Mill, and Constant articulated by unpacking the central premises of each argument, pitting them against each other through comparing and contrasting. Although, Rousseau distinguishes two specific types of liberty, natural liberty and civil liberty. Natural liberty, Rousseau states, is the freedomRead MoreJean Jacques Rousseau And The Declaration Of Independence Essay1459 Words   |  6 PagesJean-Jacques Rousseau was an Enlightenment thinker during the eighteenth century and is most noted for his work The Social Contract. The Social Contract published in 1762 and is a philosophical document that expresses the ideas of popular sovereignty. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Twilight Saga 3 Eclipse Chapter 25. MIRROR Free Essays

I FORCED MYEYES – FROZEN WIDE OPEN WITH SHOCK – to move, so that I could not examine too closely the oval object wrapped in tendrils of shivering, fiery hair. Edward was in motion again. Swift and coolly businesslike, he dismembered the headless corpse. We will write a custom essay sample on The Twilight Saga 3: Eclipse Chapter 25. MIRROR or any similar topic only for you Order Now I could not go to him – I could not make my feet respond; they were bolted to the stone beneath them. But I scrutinized his every action minutely, looking for any evidence that he had been harmed. My heart slowed to a healthier rhythm when I found nothing. He was lithe and graceful as ever. I couldn’t even see a tear in his clothes. He did not look at me – where I stood frozen to the cliff wall, horrified – while he piled the quivering, twitching limbs and then covered them with dry pine needles. He still did not meet my shocked gaze as he darted into the forest after Seth. I didn’t have time to recover before both he and Seth were back, Edward with his arms full of Riley. Seth was carrying a large chunk – the torso – in his mouth. They added their burden to the pile, and Edward pulled a silver rectangle from his pocket. He flipped open the butane lighter and held the flame to the dry tinder. It caught at once; long tongues of orange fire licked rapidly across the pyre. â€Å"Get every piece,† Edward said in a low aside to Seth. Together, the vampire and the werewolf scoured the campsite, occasionally tossing small lumps of white stone into the blaze. Seth handled the pieces with his teeth. My brain wasn’t working well enough for me to understand why he didn’t change back to a form with hands. Edward kept his eyes on his work. And then they were done, and the raging fire was sending a pillar of choking purple toward the sky. The thick smoke curled up slowly, looking more solid than it should; it smelled like burning incense, and the scent was uncomfortable. It was heavy, too strong. Seth made that snickering sound again, deep in his chest. A smile flickered across Edward’s tense face. Edward stretched out his arm, his hand curled into a fist. Seth grinned, revealing the long row of dagger teeth, and bumped his nose against Edward’s hand. â€Å"Nice teamwork,† Edward murmured. Seth coughed a laugh. Then Edward took a deep breath, and turned slowly to face me. I did not understand his expression. His eyes were as wary as if I were another enemy – more than wary, they were afraid. Yet he’d shown no fear at all when he’d faced Victoria and Riley. . . . My mind was stuck, stunned and useless as my body. I stared at him, bewildered. â€Å"Bella, love,† he said in his softest tone, walking toward me with exaggerated slowness, his hands held up, palms forward. Dazed as I was, it reminded me oddly of a suspect approaching a policeman, showing that he wasn’t armed. . . . â€Å"Bella, can you drop the rock, please? Carefully. Don’t hurt yourself.† I’d forgotten all about my crude weapon, though I realized now that I was grasping it so hard that my knuckle was screaming in protest. Was it rebroken? Carlisle would put me in a cast for sure this time. Edward hesitated a few feet from me, his hands still in the air, his eyes still fearful. It took me a few long seconds to remember how to move my fingers. Then the rock clattered to the ground, while my hand stayed frozen in the same position. Edward relaxed slightly when my hands were empty, but came no closer. â€Å"You don’t have to be afraid, Bella,† Edward murmured. â€Å"You’re safe. I won’t hurt you.† The mystifying promise only confused me further. I stared at him like an imbecile, trying to understand. â€Å"It’s going to be all right, Bella. I know you’re frightened now, but it’s over. No one is going to hurt you. I won’t touch you. I won’t hurt you,† he said again. My eyes blinked furiously, and I found my voice. â€Å"Why do you keep saying that?† I took an unsteady step toward him, and he leaned away from my advance. â€Å"What’s wrong?† I whispered. â€Å"What do you mean?† â€Å"Are you . . .† His golden eyes were suddenly as confused as I felt. â€Å"Aren’t you afraid of me?† â€Å"Afraid of you? Why?† I staggered forward another step, and then tripped over something – my own feet probably. Edward caught me, and I buried my face in his chest and started to sob. â€Å"Bella, Bella, I’m so sorry. It’s over, it’s over.† â€Å"I’m fine,† I gasped. â€Å"I’m okay. I’m just. Freaking out. Give me. A minute.† His arms tightened around me. â€Å"I’m so sorry,† he murmured again and again. I clung to him until I could breathe, and then I was kissing him – his chest, his shoulder, his neck – every part of him that I could reach. Slowly, my brain started to work again. â€Å"Are you okay?† I demanded between kisses. â€Å"Did she hurt you at all?† â€Å"I am absolutely fine,† he promised, burying his face in my hair. â€Å"Seth?† Edward chuckled. â€Å"More than fine. Very pleased with himself, in fact.† â€Å"The others? Alice, Esme? The wolves? â€Å"All fine. It’s over there, too. It went just as smoothly as I promised. We got the worst of it here.† I let myself absorb that for a moment, let it sink in and settle in my head. My family and my friends were safe. Victoria was never coming after me again. It was over. We were all going to be fine. But I couldn’t completely take in the good news while I was still so confused. â€Å"Tell me why,† I insisted. â€Å"Why did you think I would be afraid of you?† â€Å"I’m sorry,† he said, apologizing yet again – for what? I had no idea. â€Å"So sorry. I didn’t want you to see that. See me like that. I know I must have terrified you.† I had to think about that for another minute, about the hesitant way he’d approached me, his hands in the air. Like I was going to run if he moved too fast. . . . â€Å"Seriously?† I finally asked. â€Å"You . . . what? Thought you’d scared me off?† I snorted. Snorting was good; a voice couldn’t tremble or break during a snort. It sounded impressively offhand. He put his hand under my chin and tilted my head back to read my face. â€Å"Bella, I just† – he hesitated and then forced the words out – â€Å"I just beheaded and dismembered a sentient creature not twenty yards from you. That doesn’t bother you?† He frowned at me. I shrugged. Shrugging was good, too. Very blas. â€Å"Not really. I was only afraid that you and Seth were going to get hurt. I wanted to help, but there’s only so much I can do. . . .† His suddenly livid expression made my voice fade out. â€Å"Yes,† he said, his tone clipped. â€Å"Your little stunt with the rock. You know that you nearly gave me a heart attack? Not the easiest thing to do, that.† His furious glower made it hard to answer. â€Å"I wanted to help . . . Seth was hurt. . . .† â€Å"Seth was only feigning that he was hurt, Bella. It was a trick. And then you . . . !† He shook his head, unable to finish. â€Å"Seth couldn’t see what you were doing, so I had to step in. Seth’s a bit disgruntled that he can’t claim a single-handed defeat now.† â€Å"Seth was . . . faking?† Edward nodded sternly. â€Å"Oh.† We both looked at Seth, who was studiously ignoring us, watching the flames. Smugness radiated from every hair in his fur. â€Å"Well, I didn’t know that,† I said, on the offense now. â€Å"And it’s not easy being the only helpless person around. Just you wait till I’m a vampire! I’m not going to be sitting on the sidelines next time.† A dozen emotions flitted across his face before he settled on being amused. â€Å"Next time? Did you anticipate another war soon?† â€Å"With my luck? Who knows?† He rolled his eyes, but I could see that he was flying – the relief was making us both lightheaded. It was over. Or . . . was it? â€Å"Hold on. Didn’t you say something before – ?† I flinched, remembering what exactly it had been before – what was I going to say to Jacob? My splintered heart throbbed out a painful, aching beat. It was hard to believe, almost impossible, but the hardest part of this day was not behind me – and then I soldiered on. â€Å"About a complication? And Alice, needing to nail down the schedule for Sam. You said it was going to be close. What was going to be close?† Edward’s eyes flickered back to Seth, and they exchanged a loaded glance. â€Å"Well?† I asked. â€Å"It’s nothing, really,† Edward said quickly. â€Å"But we do need to be on our way. . . .† He started to pull me into place on his back, but I stiffened and drew away. â€Å"Define nothing.† Edward took my face between his palms. â€Å"We only have a minute, so don’t panic, all right? I told you that you had no reason to be afraid. Trust me on that, please?† I nodded, trying to hide the sudden terror – how much more could I handle before I collapsed? â€Å"No reason to be afraid. Got it.† He pursed his lips for a second, deciding what to say. And then he glanced abruptly at Seth, as if the wolf had called him. â€Å"What’s she doing?† Edward asked. Seth whined; it was an anxious, uneasy sound. It made the hair on the back of my neck rise. Everything was dead silent for one endless second. And then Edward gasped, â€Å"No!† and one of his hands flew out as if to grab something that I couldn’t see. â€Å"Don’t -!† A spasm rocked through Seth’s body, and a howl, blistering with agony, ripped from his lungs. Edward fell to his knees at the exact same moment, gripping the sides of his head with two hands, his face furrowed in pain. I screamed once in bewildered terror, and dropped to my knees beside him. Stupidly, I tried to pull his hands from his face; my palms, clammy with sweat, slid off his marble skin. â€Å"Edward! Edward!† His eyes focused on me; with obvious effort, he pulled his clenched teeth apart. â€Å"It’s okay. We’re going to be fine. It’s -† He broke off, and winced again. â€Å"What’s happening?† I cried out while Seth howled in anguish. â€Å"We’re fine. We’re going to be okay,† Edward gasped. â€Å"Sam – help him -â€Å" And I realized in that instant, when he said Sam’s name, that he was not speaking of himself and Seth. No unseen force was attacking them. This time, the crisis was not here. He was using the pack plural. I’d burned through all my adrenaline. My body had nothing left. I sagged, and Edward caught me before I could hit the rocks. He sprang to his feet, me in his arms. â€Å"Seth!† Edward shouted. Seth was crouched, still tensed in agony, looking as if he meant to launch himself into the forest. â€Å"No!† Edward ordered. â€Å"You go straight home. Now. As fast as you can!† Seth whimpered, shaking his great head from side to side. â€Å"Seth. Trust me.† The huge wolf stared into Edward’s agonized eyes for one long second, and then he straightened up and flew into the trees, disappearing like a ghost. Edward cradled me tightly against his chest, and then we were also hurtling through the shadowy forest, taking a different path than the wolf. â€Å"Edward.† I fought to force the words through my constricted throat. â€Å"What happened, Edward? What happened to Sam? Where are we going? What’s happening?† â€Å"We have to go back to the clearing,† he told me in a low voice. â€Å"We knew there was a good probability of this happening. Earlier this morning, Alice saw it and passed it through Sam to Seth. The Volturi decided it was time to intercede.† The Volturi. Too much. My mind refused to make sense of the words, pretended it couldn’t understand. The trees jolted past us. He was running downhill so fast that it felt as if we were plummeting, falling out of control. â€Å"Don’t panic. They aren’t coming for us. It’s just the normal contingent of the guard that usually cleans up this kind of mess. Nothing momentous, they’re merely doing their job. Of course, they seem to have timed their arrival very carefully. Which leads me to believe that no one in Italy would mourn if these newborns had reduced the size of the Cullen family.† The words came through his teeth, hard and bleak. â€Å"I’ll know for sure what they were thinking when they get to the clearing.† â€Å"Is that why we’re going back?† I whispered. Could I handle this? Images of flowing black robes crept into my unwilling mind, and I flinched away from them. I was close to a breaking point. â€Å"It’s part of the reason. Mostly, it will be safer for us to present a united front at this point. They have no reason to harass us, but . . . Jane’s with them. If she thought we were alone somewhere away from the others, it might tempt her. Like Victoria, Jane will probably guess that I’m with you. Demetri, of course, is with her. He could find me, if Jane asked him to.† I didn’t want to think that name. I didn’t want to see that blindingly exquisite, childlike face in my head. A strange sound came out of my throat. â€Å"Shh, Bella, shh. It’s all going to be fine. Alice can see that.† Alice could see? But . . . then where were the wolves? Where was the pack? â€Å"The pack?† â€Å"They had to leave quickly. The Volturi do not honor truces with werewolves.† I could hear my breathing get faster, but I couldn’t control it. I started to gasp. â€Å"I swear they will be fine,† Edward promised me. â€Å"The Volturi won’t recognize the scent – they won’t realize the wolves are here; this isn’t a species they are familiar with. The pack will be fine.† I couldn’t process his explanation. My concentration was ripped to shreds by my fears. We’re going to be fine, he had said before . . . and Seth, howling in agony . . . Edward had avoided my first question, distracted me with the Volturi. . . . I was very close to the edge – just clinging by my fingertips. The trees were a racing blur that flowed around him like jade waters. â€Å"What happened?† I whispered again. â€Å"Before. When Seth was howling? When you were hurt?† Edward hesitated. â€Å"Edward! Tell me!† â€Å"It was all over,† he whispered. I could barely hear him over the wind his speed created. â€Å"The wolves didn’t count their half . . . they thought they had them all. Of course, Alice couldn’t see. . . .† â€Å"What happened?!† â€Å"One of the newborns was hiding. . . . Leah found him – she was being stupid, cocky, trying to prove something. She engaged him alone. . . .† â€Å"Leah,† I repeated, and I was too weak to feel shame for the relief that flooded through me. â€Å"Is she going to be okay?† â€Å"Leah wasn’t hurt,† Edward mumbled. I stared at him for a long second. Sam – help him – Edward had gasped. Him, not her. â€Å"We’re almost there,† Edward said, and he stared at a fixed point in the sky. Automatically, my eyes followed his. There was a dark purple cloud hanging low over the trees. A cloud? But it was so abnormally sunny. . . . No, not a cloud – I recognized the thick column of smoke, just like the one at our campsite. â€Å"Edward,† I said, my voice nearly inaudible. â€Å"Edward, someone got hurt.† I’d heard Seth’s agony, seen the torture in Edward’s face. â€Å"Yes,† he whispered. â€Å"Who?† I asked, though, of course, I already knew the answer. Of course I did. Of course. The trees were slowing around us as we came to our destination. It took him a long moment to answer me. â€Å"Jacob,† he said. I was able to nod once. â€Å"Of course,† I whispered. And then I slipped off the edge I was clinging to inside my head. Everything went black. I was first aware of the cool hands touching me. More than one pair of hands. Arms holding me, a palm curved to fit my cheek, fingers stroking my forehead, and more fingers pressed lightly into my wrist. Then I was aware of the voices. They were just ahumming at first, and then they grew in volume and clarity like someone was turning up a radio. â€Å"Carlisle – it’s been five minutes.† Edward’s voice, anxious. â€Å"She’ll come around when she’s ready, Edward.† Carlisle’s voice, always calm and sure. â€Å"She’s had too much to deal with today. Let her mind protect itself.† But my mind was not protected. It was trapped in the knowledge that had not left me, even in unconsciousness – the pain that was part of the blackness. I felt totally disconnected from my body. Like I was caged in some small corner of my head, no longer at the controls. But I couldn’t do anything about it. I couldn’t think. The agony was too strong for that. There was no escape from it. Jacob. Jacob. No, no, no, no, no . . . â€Å"Alice, how long do we have?† Edward demanded, his voice still tense; Carlisle’s soothing words had not helped. From farther away, Alice’s voice. It was brightly chipper. â€Å"Another five minutes. And Bella will open her eyes in thirty-seven seconds. I wouldn’t doubt that she can hear us now.† â€Å"Bella, honey?† This was Esme’s soft, comforting voice. â€Å"Can you hear me? You’re safe now, dear.† Yes, I was safe. Did that really matter? Then cool lips were at my ear, and Edward was speaking the words that allowed me to escape from the torture that had me caged inside my own head. â€Å"He’s going to live, Bella. Jacob Black is healing as I speak. He’ll be fine.† As the pain and dread eased, I found my way back to my body. My eyelids fluttered. â€Å"Oh, Bella,† Edward sighed in relief, and his lips touched mine. â€Å"Edward,† I whispered. â€Å"Yes, I’m here.† I got my lids to open, and I stared into warm gold. â€Å"Jacob is okay?† I asked. â€Å"Yes,† he promised. I watched his eyes carefully for some sign that he was placating me, but they were perfectly clear. â€Å"I examined him myself,† Carlisle said then; I turned my head to find his face, only a few feet away. Carlisle’s expression was serious and reassuring at the same time. It was impossible to doubt him. â€Å"His life is not in any danger. He was healing at an incredible rate, though his injuries were extensive enough that it will still be a few days before he is back to normal, even if the rate of repair holds steady. As soon as we’re done here, I will do what I can to help him. Sam is trying to get him to phase back to his human form. That will make treating him easier.† Carlisle smiled slightly. â€Å"I’ve never been to veterinarian school.† â€Å"What happened to him?† I whispered. â€Å"How bad are his injuries?† Carlisle’s face was serious again. â€Å"Another wolf was in trouble -â€Å" â€Å"Leah,† I breathed. â€Å"Yes. He knocked her out of the way, but he didn’t have time to defend himself. The newborn got his arms around him. Most of the bones on the right half of his body were shattered.† I flinched. â€Å"Sam and Paul got there in time. He was already improving when they took him back to La Push.† â€Å"He’ll be back to normal?† I asked. â€Å"Yes, Bella. He won’t have any permanent damage.† I took a deep breath. â€Å"Three minutes,† Alice said quietly. I struggled, trying to get vertical. Edward realized what I was doing and helped me to my feet. I stared at the scene in front of me. The Cullens stood in a loose semicircle around the bonfire. There were hardly any flames visible, just the thick, purple-black smoke, hovering like a disease against the bright grass. Jasper stood closest to the solid- seeming haze, in its shadow so that his skin did not glitter brilliantly in the sun the way the others did. He had his back to me, his shoulders tense, his arms slightly extended. There was something there, in his shadow. Something he crouched over with wary intensity. . . . I was too numb to feel more than a mild shock when I realized what it was. There were eight vampires in the clearing. The girl was curled into a small ball beside the flames, her arms wrapped around her legs. She was very young. Younger than me – she looked maybe fifteen, dark-haired and slight. Her eyes were focused on me, and the irises were a shocking, brilliant red. Much brighter than Riley’s, almost glowing. They wheeled wildly, out of control. Edward saw my bewildered expression. â€Å"She surrendered,† he told me quietly. â€Å"That’s one I’ve never seen before. Only Carlisle would think of offering. Jasper doesn’t approve.† I couldn’t tear my gaze away from the scene beside the fire. Jasper was rubbing absently at his left forearm. â€Å"Is Jasper all right?† I whispered. â€Å"He’s fine. The venom stings.† â€Å"He was bitten?† I asked, horrified. â€Å"He was trying to be everywhere at once. Trying to make sure Alice had nothing to do, actually.† Edward shook his head. â€Å"Alice doesn’t need anyone’s help.† Alice grimaced toward her true love. â€Å"Overprotective fool.† The young female suddenly threw her head back like an animal and wailed shrilly. Jasper growled at her and she cringed back, but her fingers dug into the ground like claws and her head whipped back and forth in anguish. Jasper took a step toward her, slipping deeper into his crouch. Edward moved with overdone casualness, turning our bodies so that he was between the girl and me. I peeked around his arm to watch the thrashing girl and Jasper. Carlisle was at Jasper’s side in an instant. He put a restraining hand on his most recent son’s arm. â€Å"Have you changed your mind, young one?† Carlisle asked, calm as ever. â€Å"We don’t want to destroy you, but we will if you can’t control yourself.† â€Å"How can you stand it?† the girl groaned in a high, clear voice. â€Å"I want her.† Her bright crimson irises focused on Edward, through him, beyond him to me, and her nails ripped through the hard soil again. â€Å"You must stand it,† Carlisle told her gravely. â€Å"You must exercise control. It is possible, and it is the only thing that will save you now.† The girl clutched her dirt-encrusted hands around her head, yowling quietly. â€Å"Shouldn’t we move away from her?† I whispered, tugging on Edward’s arm. The girl’s lips pulled back over her teeth when she heard my voice, her expression one of torment. â€Å"We have to stay here,† Edward murmured. â€Å"They are coming to the north end of the clearing now.† My heart burst into a sprint as I scanned the clearing, but I couldn’t see anything past the thick pall of smoke. After a second of fruitless searching, my gaze crept back to the young female vampire. She was still watching me, her eyes half-mad. I met the girl’s stare for a long moment. Chin-length dark hair framed her face, which was alabaster pale. It was hard to tell if her features were beautiful, twisted as they were by rage and thirst. The feral red eyes were dominant – hard to look away from. She glared at me viciously, shuddering and writhing every few seconds. I stared at her, mesmerized, wondering if I were looking into a mirror of my future. Then Carlisle and Jasper began to back toward the rest of us. Emmett, Rosalie, and Esme all converged hastily around where Edward stood with Alice and me. A united front, as Edward had said, with me at the heart, in the safest place. I tore my attention away from the wild girl to search for the approaching monsters. There was stillnothing to see. I glanced at Edward, and his eyes were locked straight ahead. I tried to follow his gaze, but there was only the smoke – dense, oily smoke twisting low to the ground, rising lazily, undulating against the grass. It billowed forward, darker in the middle. â€Å"Hmm,† a dead voice murmured from the mist. I recognized the apathy at once. â€Å"Welcome, Jane.† Edward’s tone was coolly courteous. The dark shapes came closer, separating themselves from the haze, solidifying. I knew it would be Jane in the front – the darkest cloak, almost black, and the smallest figure by more than two feet. I could just barely make out Jane’s angelic features in the shade of the cowl. The four gray-shrouded figures hulking behind her were also somewhat familiar. I was sure I recognized the biggest one, and while I stared, trying to confirm my suspicion, Felix looked up. He let his hood fall back slightly so that I could see him wink at me and smile. Edward was very still at my side, tightly in control. Jane’s gaze moved slowly across the luminous faces of the Cullens and then touched on the newborn girl beside the fire; the newborn had her head in her hands again. â€Å"I don’t understand.† Jane’s voice was toneless, but not quite as uninterested as before. â€Å"She has surrendered,† Edward explained, answering the confusion in her mind. Jane’s dark eyes flashed to his face. â€Å"Surrendered?† Felix and another shadow exchanged a quick glance. Edward shrugged. â€Å"Carlisle gave her the option.† â€Å"There are no options for those who break the rules,† Jane said flatly. Carlisle spoke then, his voice mild. â€Å"That’s in your hands. As long as she was willing to halt her attack on us, I saw no need to destroy her. She was never taught.† â€Å"That is irrelevant,† Jane insisted. â€Å"As you wish.† Jane stared at Carlisle in consternation. She shook her head infinitesimally, and then composed her features. â€Å"Aro hoped that we would get far enough west to see you, Carlisle. He sends his regards.† Carlisle nodded. â€Å"I would appreciate it if you would convey mine to him.† â€Å"Of course.† Jane smiled. Her face was almost too lovely when it was animated. She looked back toward the smoke. â€Å"It appears that you’ve done our work for us today . . . for the most part.† Her eyes flickered to the hostage. â€Å"Just out of professional curiosity, how many were there? They left quite a wake of destruction in Seattle.† â€Å"Eighteen, including this one,† Carlisle answered. Jane’s eyes widened, and she looked at the fire again, seeming to reassess the size of it. Felix and the other shadow exchanged a longer glance. â€Å"Eighteen?† she repeated, her voice sounding unsure for the first time. â€Å"All brand-new,† Carlisle said dismissively. â€Å"They were unskilled.† â€Å"All?† Her voice turned sharp. â€Å"Then who was their creator?† â€Å"Her name was Victoria,† Edward answered, no emotion in his voice. â€Å"Was?† Jane asked. Edward inclined his head toward the eastern forest. Jane’s eyes snapped up and focused on something far in the distance. The other pillar of smoke? I didn’t look away to check. Jane stared to the east for a long moment, and then examined the closer bonfire again. â€Å"This Victoria – she was in addition to the eighteen here?† â€Å"Yes. She had only one other with her. He was not as young as this one here, but no older than a year.† â€Å"Twenty,† Jane breathed. â€Å"Who dealt with the creator?† â€Å"I did,† Edward told her. Jane’s eyes narrowed, and she turned to the girl beside the fire. â€Å"You there,† she said, her dead voice harsher than before. â€Å"Your name.† The newborn shot a baleful glare at Jane, her lips pressed tightly together. Jane smiled back angelically. The newborn girl’s answering scream was ear-piercing; her body arched stiffly into a distorted, unnatural position. I looked away, fighting the urge to cover my ears. I gritted my teeth, hoping to control my stomach. The screaming intensified. I tried to concentrate on Edward’s face, smooth and unemotional, but that made me remember when it had been Edward under Jane’s torturing gaze, and I felt sicker. I looked at Alice instead, and Esme next to her. Their faces were as empty as his. Finally, it was quiet. â€Å"Your name,† Jane said again, her voice inflectionless. â€Å"Bree,† the girl gasped. Jane smiled, and the girl shrieked again. I held my breath until the sound of her agony stopped. â€Å"She’ll tell you anything you want to know,† Edward said through his teeth. â€Å"You don’t have to do that.† Jane looked up, sudden humor in her usually dead eyes. â€Å"Oh, I know,† she said to Edward, grinning at him before she turned back to the young vampire, Bree. â€Å"Bree,† Jane said, her voice cold again. â€Å"Is his story true? Were there twenty of you?† The girl lay panting, the side of her face pressed against the earth. She spoke quickly. â€Å"Nineteen or twenty, maybe more, I don’t know!† She cringed, terrified that her ignorance might bring on another round of torture. â€Å"Sara and the one whose name I don’t know got in a fight on the way. . . .† â€Å"And this Victoria – did she create you?† â€Å"I don’t know,† she said, flinching again. â€Å"Riley never said her name. I didn’t see that night . . . it was so dark, and it hurt. . . .† Bree shuddered. â€Å"He didn’t want us to be able to think of her. He said that our thoughts weren’t safe. . . .† Jane’s eyes flickered to Edward, and then back to the girl. Victoria had planned this well. If she hadn’t followed Edward, there would have been no way to know for certain that she was involved. . . . â€Å"Tell me about Riley,† Jane said. â€Å"Why did he bring you here?† â€Å"Riley told us that we had to destroy the strange yellow-eyes here,† Bree babbled quickly and willingly. â€Å"He said it would be easy. He said that the city was theirs, and they were coming to get us. He said once they were gone, all the blood would be ours. He gave us her scent.† Bree lifted one hand and stabbed a finger in my direction. â€Å"He said we would know that we had the right coven, because she would be with them. He said whoever got to her first could have her.† I heard Edward’s jaw flex beside me. â€Å"It looks like Riley was wrong about the easy part,† Jane noted. Bree nodded, seeming relieved that the conversation had taken this non-painful course. She sat up carefully. â€Å"I don’t know what happened. We split up, but the others never came. And Riley left us, and he didn’t come to help like he promised. And then it was so confusing, and everybody was in pieces.† She shuddered again. â€Å"I was afraid. I wanted to run away. That one† – she looked at Carlisle – â€Å"said they wouldn’t hurt me if I stopped fighting.† â€Å"Ah, but that wasn’t his gift to offer, young one,† Jane murmured, her voice oddly gentle now. â€Å"Broken rules demand a consequence.† Bree stared at her, not comprehending. Jane looked at Carlisle. â€Å"Are you sure you got all of them? The other half that split off?† Carlisle’s face was very smooth as he nodded. â€Å"We split up, too.† Jane half-smiled. â€Å"I can’t deny that I’m impressed.† The big shadows behind her murmured in agreement. â€Å"I’ve never seen a coven escape this magnitude of offensive intact. Do you know what was behind it? It seems like extreme behavior, considering the way you live here. And why was the girl the key?† Her eyes rested unwilling on me for one short second. I shivered. â€Å"Victoria held a grudge against Bella,† Edward told her, his voice impassive. Jane laughed – the sound was golden, the bubbling laugh of a happy child. â€Å"This one seems to bring out bizarrely strong reactions in our kind,† she observed, smiling directly at me, her face beatific. Edward stiffened. I looked at him in time to see his face turning away, back to Jane. â€Å"Would you please not do that?† he asked in a tight voice. Jane laughed again lightly. â€Å"Just checking. No harm done, apparently.† I shivered, deeply grateful that the strange glitch in my system – which had protected me from Jane the last time we’d met – was still in effect. Edward’s arm tightened around me. â€Å"Well, it appears that there’s not much left for us to do. Odd,† Jane said, apathy creeping back into her voice. â€Å"We’re not used to being rendered unnecessary. It’s too bad we missed the fight. It sounds like it would have been entertaining to watch.† â€Å"Yes,† Edward answered her quickly, his voice sharp. â€Å"And you were so close. It’s a shame you didn’t arrive just a half hour earlier. Perhaps then you could have fulfilled your purpose here.† Jane met Edward’s glare with unwavering eyes. â€Å"Yes. Quite a pity how things turned out, isn’t it?† Edward nodded once to himself, his suspicions confirmed. Jane turned to look at the newborn Bree again, her face completely bored. â€Å"Felix?† she drawled. â€Å"Wait,† Edward interjected. Jane raised one eyebrow, but Edward was staring at Carlisle while he spoke in an urgent voice. â€Å"We could explain the rules to the young one. She doesn’t seem unwilling to learn. She didn’t know what she was doing.† â€Å"Of course,† Carlisle answered. â€Å"We would certainly be prepared to take responsibility for Bree.† Jane’s expression was torn between amusement and disbelief. â€Å"We don’t make exceptions,† she said. â€Å"And we don’t give second chances. It’s bad for our reputation. Which reminds me . . .† Suddenly, her eyes were on me again, and her cherubic face dimpled. â€Å"Caius will be so interested to hear that you’re still human, Bella. Perhaps he’ll decide to visit.† â€Å"The date is set,† Alice told Jane, speaking for the first time. â€Å"Perhaps we’ll come to visit you in a few months.† Jane’s smile faded, and she shrugged indifferently, never looking at Alice. She turned to face Carlisle. â€Å"It was nice to meet you, Carlisle – I’d thought Aro was exaggerating. Well, until we meet again . . .† Carlisle nodded, his expression pained. â€Å"Take care of that, Felix,† Jane said, nodding toward Bree, her voice dripping boredom. â€Å"I want to go home.† â€Å"Don’t watch,† Edward whispered in my ear. I was only too eager to follow his instruction. I’d seen more than enough for one day – more than enough for one lifetime. I squeezed my eyes tightly together and turned my face into Edward’s chest. But I could still hear. There was a deep, rumbling growl, and then a high-pitched keen that was horribly familiar. That sound cut off quickly, and then the only sound was a sickening crunching and snapping. Edward’s hand rubbed anxiously against my shoulders. â€Å"Come,† Jane said, and I looked up in time to see the backs of the tall gray cloaks drifting away toward the curling smoke. The incense smell was strong again – fresh. The gray cloaks disappeared into the thick mist. How to cite The Twilight Saga 3: Eclipse Chapter 25. MIRROR, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

This Lesson Describes The Usenet Culture And Customs That Have Essays

This lesson describes the Usenet culture and customs that have developed over time. It is the people participating in Usenet that make it worth the effort to read and maintain; for Usenet to function properly those people must be able to interact in productive ways. This document is intended as a guide to using the net in ways that will be pleasant and productive for everyone. This lesson is not intended to teach you how to use Usenet. It is a guide on how to use Usenet politely, effectively and efficiently. Communication by computer is new to almost everybody, and there are certain aspects that can make it a frustrating experience until you get used to them. This lesson should help you avoid the worst traps. The easiest way to learn how to use Usenet is to watch how others use it. Start reading the news and try to figure out what people are doing and why. After a couple of weeks you will start understanding why certain things are done and what things shouldn't be done. There are documents available describing the technical details of how to use the software. These are different depending on which programs you use to access the news. You can get copies of these from your system administrator. If you do not know who that person is, they can be contacted on most systems by mailing to account "news", "usenet" or "postmaster". Usenet is a world-wide distributed discussion system. It consists of a set of "newsgroups" with names that are classified hierarchically by subject. "Articles" or "messages" are "posted" to these newsgroups by people on computers with the appropriate software -- these articles are then broadcast to other interconnected computer systems via a wide variety of networks. Some newsgroups are "moderated"; in these newsgroups, the articles are first sent to a moderator for approval before appearing in the newsgroup. Usenet is available on a wide variety of computer systems and networks. There are thousands of Usenet newsgroups, and it is sometimes difficult to find the right newsgroup to ask a question or start a discussion. This lesson gives some general methods of finding the right newsgroup or mailing list for a topic. To find what groups are relevant for your subject, you might search through your local list of newsgroups that your ISP (internet service provider) has provided. . Then subscribe to those groups, and look at some of the recent traffic, to make sure that your question is suitable for the group. (For example, questions about Microsoft Windows belong in comp.os.ms-windows.*, not comp.windows.*) [The asterisk, '*', means multiple objects (here, groups) are referenced.] On some systems, your .newsrc file won't contain the names of newsgroups you haven't subscribed to. In that case, read the documentation for your newsreader to find out how to add newsgroups, and use the methods mentioned below to find out the names of groups that might be available on your system. On some ISP systems, the 'newsgroups' command will show you a file containing a one-line description of the purpose of each newsgroup (the newsgroups file), or longer descriptions of the purpose and contents of each newsgroup (the newsgroup charters.) Ask the ISP news administrator if these or similar resources are available on your system. A way to find newsgroups where your topic is discussed is to use one of the Web search tools, such as http://www.dejanews.com/ or http://www.altavista.digital.com/ and enter a keyword search for your topic. As with all search engines, taking a few moments to learn how to compose an effective search will make the results much more useful. Once you have checked local resources, and the formal newsgroup descriptions, if you are still uncertain as to what groups are 'right' for your post, you can ask in news.groups.questions - this group is designed for people to ask what existing newsgroup is appropriate for a given topic or sub-topic of discussion. Very few sites carry all available newsgroups (there are thousands). Your local news administrator can help you access newsgroups that are not currently available, or explain why certain groups are not available at your site. If your site does not carry the newsgroup(s) where your post belongs, do NOT post it in other, inappropriate groups. WHAT USENET IS NOT ------------------ 1. Usenet is not an organization. No person or group has