Sunday, February 16, 2020

Cementing Intercultural Communication Gaps For Smoother Roads to Research Paper

Cementing Intercultural Communication Gaps For Smoother Roads to Harmony - Research Paper Example Human beings communicate their thoughts and feelings to one another in verbal and non-verbal ways. Verbal communication, or speaking out to another person is often accompanied by non-verbal language which includes facial expressions, gestures, posture, body language and tone of voice. Sometimes, such non-verbal expressions say more than the verbalizations of a person. The way one communicates and receives information matters much in the quality of relationships he or she has with others. Effective communication takes practice and hard work especially for those who are not skilled in interpersonal relations. Several factors need to be considered when communicating: age, gender, relationship to the person, nature of the communication exchange, temperament and personality and even culture. The adage â€Å"Actions speak louder than words† rings true in a variety of situations. In the workplace, people manifest explicit verbal communication and implicit, non-verbal communication (L ee, 2008). Explicit verbal communication takes the form of direct reprimands or written memos to delinquent workers. Implicit, non-verbal communication is more action-oriented. An example is a boss deliberately showing a delinquent worker that he is taking over the tasks formerly assigned to the worker. The boss may not say anything, but the message comes across very clear to the worker that his inefficiency is noted by the boss. In times of conflict, the impact of implicit, nonverbal communication and explicit, verbal communication (that is, the written norm) is never equal. The more visible and stark the image, the more effective the message is delivered and received. Verbal and nonverbal interactions play a part in the effective exchange of ideas. LeFebvre (2008) advises that when speaking, one must also be aware of body language and tone and inflection of voice. She notes that different ideas may be conveyed by simply emphasizing or speaking louder the different parts of the sta tement. Being an active listener helps one understand the message being relayed to him. As the listener, one should hold his response until the speaker is done, and keenly observe nonverbal cues expressed. It must always be remembered that communication is a give and take process. One must learn to wait his turn to be the speaker and the listener. The Role of Culture in Communication Hofstede (1994), a well-known scholar of culture and its effect on people, defined culture as â€Å"the collective programming of the mind which distinguished the members of one human group from another†¦ Culture, in this sense, includes systems of values; and values are among the building blocks of culture† (Hofstede, 1994, p.54 ). This definition shows how much culture has an influence on people, often dictating how they would relate and communicate to others. Consideration of others’ cultural background entails adjustments to accommodate the needs of others and the exertion of effo rt to understand what they want to communicate. On the contrary, disregarding the other’s culture and instead, promoting one’s own, whether it agrees with the other or not can be a source of major conflicts. Even within a specific country, there exist sub-cultures. An example is the Asian culture. Some values are associated as â€Å"typically Asian†, such as honor and integrity. Within Asian countries, some communicative interpretations differ. To illustrate, in one country, being able to look straight into the eye of another person when speaking, means that the person is sincere while in another country it denotes defiance

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Finance Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Finance Assignment - Essay Example However, the performance level is crucial in determining the stock price, but it not necessary that a company that has good financial statement may be the best to invest. This is because the movement of the value of the stock price changes by the activities of the investors, so the investor needs to clearly watch the demand and supply of the stock and invest accordingly. That is way, people say that trading is require full attention of mind and is not luck game. In order to be a successful investor, one should have the quality of asset management. Now, picking a sole asset or playing only with one stock is never a feasible option. Such type of assets are called stand-alone asset and risk associated to them I the stand-alone risk (Brigham 1994 p.156). There are always chances that your value of the stock may go down and you would likely have loss or you may even win. But the probability of success is always uncertain. So most of the investors or traders advice to go for more than two assets and invest in different sectors or companies. So one should make a portfolio of assets, so that value of one stock goes down, the value of others would be might go up and the end you may not lose your money. Therefore, logically investing in securities as portfolio is more beneficial than going for stand-alone securities (Brigham 1994 p.156). ... Fundamental Analysis: Now when an investor would be looking for a company or an industry to invest, he needs to analyze its financial statements such as Income Statement, Cash Flow Statements etc and also its competitors, so that he could among them and then decide. Analyzing past trends and pattern of movement of assets should also done. All such basic analyses when selecting a security is called Analytical modeling. There are basic types of modeling, Technical and Fundamental. The Technical approach is much more simple because it mainly deals with the past trend and by looking it, calculated the expected future value of the asset. Whereas, the Fundamental approach is more studied approach and require more in-depth analysis of assets. The fundamental analysis requires more quantitative analysis involved. The investor must have the knowledge of financial statements and ratios such Earning Per Share (EPS), Sales Per Share (SPS), Return on total Asset (ROA), Return On Investment (ROI) and other liquidity r atios, turnovers etc ( Approaches Now once you get the complete knowledge of the price movement of the knowledge, now the question of how to invest arises i.e. should the investor invest sector-wise or company-wise. In Top-down approach, the investor first looks the entire stock market, how specific industry is performing and then finally at the stock ( For Instance, I have invested in Shell Petroleum. Now following the top-down approach I would first analyze the entire stock exchange and look whether the market index points are performing. Are they closing at higher rate or not Then my next step would be to look the performance of Refinery

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The impact of armed conflict in Nigeria

The impact of armed conflict in Nigeria Many countries in sub-Saharan region in Africa have been plagued with ethnic and religious conflicts. Nigeria has not been immune to such conflicts. The country has and continues to witness high levels of ethnic and anti-sate violence. Ever since independence from Britain in 1960 the African nation of Nigeria has been torn apart by wars, violence and ethnic conflicts. This paper centers on the effect of such conflicts on Nigerian women with a focus on the conflict in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State. The city has continually been rocked by brutal and relentless riots in 1994, 2001, 2008 and most recently in January 2010. These conflicts have brought about extensive destruction of lives and properties. Most significantly, the conflicts have brought about gross human rights violations perpetrated against civilian populations, particularly women and children who apparently make up the most vulnerable group. Considerable work has been done regarding women and armed conflicts. Much of this work has been done by institutions concerned with human rights violations, particularly violations against women. Unfortunately, much of this work has focused on sexual violence against women and has largely ignored other important aspects of violations against women. The purpose of this paper is to consider and highlight a range of ways in which women are affected by armed conflicts (in addition to sexual violence). Using responses from interviews conducted with women who have experienced the most recent conflict in the capital city of Jos in Nigeria, we argue that there is a wide range of ways in which women are affected by armed conflict. For example, armed conflict exacerbates inequalities. These inequalities continue even after the conflicts cease. Our findings show that women experience economic hardships during and after conflict. Furthermore, women are excluded from peace building initiatives that take place during and after armed conflict. Keywords-Armed conflicts, ethnic conflicts, human rights violations, religious conflicts, and womens rights. INTRODUCTION The frequency of conflicts leading to violence and extensive destruction of lives and property especially since the early 80s in many countries of the world can, without exaggeration, be traced to many factors. Some of these factors are political, economic, ethno-religious conflicts and land boundary issues. Most of these conflicts are often presented as either ethnical or religious in nature, and oftentimes both. However these research findings indicate that the underlying fundamental factor that facilitates such ethno-religious conflicts revolves around prevailing economic and political crisis. This is the basic podium for most of the recurring predicaments. Unfortunately, ethno-religious conflicts remain the political, economic and social legacies of three decades which involves perceived marginalization, mal-governance and disrespect for the constitution. The greedy and selfish ways in which the Nigerian political leaders embarked on, in acquiring power at all cost, has overturned the true federal constitution negotiated by the founding leaders. This reveals some of the primary basis for the violent crisis in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria. BACKGROUND In 2001, a major crisis occurred in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State in the northern part of Nigeria, leading to the destruction of properties and loss of lives. There was also another crisis in 2004, 2008 and the most recent in 2010. The causes of these conflicts are seen as political, ethno-religious and indigenes settlers dispute. In most cases, it is tough to describe the Jos crisis from just the ethnic perspective without observing the political, economic or religious aspect. They are not mutually exclusive. The recurrent crisis in Jos especially the one that occurred in 2010 left a fatal impact on the society. Many people including women and children were killed. The 2010 Jos crisis recorded the highest casualty of women and children in comparison to the previous ones. About 500 women lost their lives in unpleasant circumstances while other women lost their husbands and children as well as their means of livelihood. It is rather unfortunate and unlikely that the leadership of the present government will be able to take the bold step to make required constitution changes to douse the festering ethno-religious tension and violence in many parts of the country. Nigeria is a complex society with a wide variety of religious and cultural allegiance and susceptibility. The least one could do is to come to terms with the reality of the multi-religious status and thus recognize and ensure that the rights of all Nigerians are equally protected. The city of Jos had deadly riots in 2001, 2008 and 2010, and the communal/religious crisis that erupted in Jos (Plateau) in 2001 still causes a lot of clashes in the State till date. It was shocking to many Nigerians that had nursed the notion that Jos was a safe haven for most Christians from other ethnic nationalities who fled from the States dominated by the Islamic Sharia laws. We also observed that most of the conflicts are located in urban areas, and that mostly women and their children suffered the most. Those not killed during the conflict are left to feed and fend for themselves and their children. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Many of these contestations between indigenes and settlers result in violence. As noted, Jos and most of the towns in Plateau State in 1994, 2001, 2004 in which the Beroms, Afizere and others who claim to be indigenes oppose the Hausa/Fulani tribes who are regarded as settlers from the era of the colonial masters who mostly came in to Jos town as miners and merchants. Jos Crisis: A crisis triggered by inequality. It can easily be traced to the deep inequalities in the society. In 2004, a state of emergency was declared in Plateau State (of which Jos is the capital) after which over 200 Muslims were killed in the attacks by Christian militia. In the November 2008 crisis, over 340 people were killed and properties worth billions were burnt when Muslim opposition supporters went on the rampage over alleged election irregularities after they had heard their candidate to head a council had lost to a Christian. In January 2010, being the most recent crisis, more than 500 people were killed mostly women after the Christians protested the construction of a mosque in a Christian area, and after Muslim protesters attacked a Catholic church. It is ironic that such catastrophic and bloody encounters have occurred in Jos, a city which derives its name from an acronym for Jesus Our Saviour. Perhaps, the origin of Jos a former enclave for colonial missionaries and its geographic location aptly described by some as a de facto fault line separating Nigerias mainly Muslim northern part from its mainly Christian southern region. Nigeria is a country of strong prejudice between indigenes and non-indigene natives and settlers, the Nigerian constitution even empowers this ethnic affiliation by giving credence to the State of origin and likewise some political appointments are based on ethnic and state of origin. The crisis in Jos is not immune to the State of Origin contraption the Christians are the natives, while the Muslims are the settlers. Hence the belief remains that the natives are threatened by the increasing population and prominence of the settlers. The natives are neither too keen to share their lands with the settlers nor offer their hands in partnership on the political outfit. The settlers on the other hand, feel cheated and threatened too by the natives whom they feel have failed to recognize them politically and socially despite having co-existed for decades. The fact that the two are on the opposing sides of the religious divide certainly does not help. The cumulative effect of these factors the aftermath of cultural and societal inequality is what has been happening in Jos over the years. METHODOLOGY: This research work is based on qualitative analysis methods. The principle method used is structured in-depth interviews conducted within and outside the conflict zones. Reports were drawn from rural dwellers and persons affected by the conflict including women and youths were interviewed at different times. Reports from government commissions inquiry and other investigation by setup groups were also utilized. The report of the Plateau Peace Conference 2004 was very useful for this paper. Reports from assigned committee at the Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution after visits to the conflict town were also very useful for this journal work. Some other researchers from the field who were also staff of the Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies similarly gave their report from the field work. Newspaper reports, textbooks and the web were also consulted for the completion of this paper. ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY In general, the political instability engendered by frequent communal disputes riots, armed confrontation and breakdown of law and order cannot be attractive for local or foreign investors. Jos, as it is right now from what we physically observed remains a ghost city with houses, market places, factories and company burnt down to ashes. We had met with and interviewed a business tycoon, Alhaji Busari who was a car dealer and narrated his ordeal amidst tears. He said how can this Jos riot be a forgotten incident to me when I practically lost all what I have worked and lived for in life in just one day. Billions of Naira was burnt down, the showroom where cars are parked for display was burnt down to ashes and all the cars on display were destroyed and burnt by the rioters. IMPACT OF THE CRISIS ON WOMEN Gender is thus a socially constructed identity through which roles are assigned at different levels and which can differ according to culture and can be changed by circumstances such as conflict. While the entire community suffers the dire consequences of armed conflict and terrorism, women and girls are particularly affected because of their status in society and their gender. Parties in conflict often rape women with impunity sometimes using systematic rape as a tactic of war and terrorism. A youth activist remarked as follows: The conflict inflicted psychological and emotional pain on both genders. However, the plight of women was particularly pronounced. There was the case of about twenty women and girls captured by the Boghom people and taken to a village called Kangyal in Kanam Local Government Area. The women and their daughters suffered the worst form of sexual abuse as their captors took turns on them every evening for three months. When they were eventually rescued, five of them were pregnant and tested positive to HIV/AIDS test. THE IMPACT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN This also has to do with violation of human rights of women, in such situation as experienced by women of all ages, who suffer displacement, loss of homes and property, involuntary disappearance of close relatives, poverty, family separation, disintegration and those victims of acts of murder, terrorism, torture, sexual slavery. These spell out the prevailing human right violations and policies of ethnic cleansing in the war-torn and occupied areas. These practices have created inter alia a mass flow of refugees. Such women and children become refugees that no longer have homes or houses over their heads i.e. they become internally displaced persons. According to the research findings, women make up the highest group of casualties. The picture above shows women in Abuja carrying pictures of dead women and children. Mostly women and children constitute about 80 percent of the millions of refugees around the world. Other refugees including internally displaced persons are deprived of their properties, goods and also deprivation of their right to freedom of movement to return to their homes for fear and insecurity. The degree of insecurity and disorientation was identified when the Institute for Peace and Conflict researchers went to the refugee camps in Bukuru, Jos (a south Local Government Area of Plateau State) and were told that thirty-one pregnant women at the internally displaced persons (IDP) camps were delivered of their babies at different camps. Reports from their spokesperson in charge of women in the IDP camps said in an interview that the women who gave birth were earlier taking refuge at the police stations and premises of Bukuru central mosque before they were later taken to another house which was converted to serve as a temporary maternity. Out of the 31 women that put to bed only two babies did not survive. However, the two mothers were in very good conditions. In a newspaper report, one of the nurses in charge of the maternity centers created mentioned that some bullets were removed from some of the pregnant mothers bodies who were shot during the crisis and they had to undergo some operations to stitch them. THE WOMEN WELFARE: Feeding and Clothing Lack of nutritious food in the camps is due to their population, although some Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and United Nations (UN) have visited some camp grounds to enhance the supply and distribution of food stuffs and clothing. Different groups have surfaced to donate generously for the refugees. Other repulsive experiences include: Snake bites in the bush while attempting to escape High rate of widowhood Loss of children Premature births due to fear and pressure Mothers abandoning newly born babies due to lack of funds and inability to survive Forced marriages This picture shows some illustrations of the impact of the conflict on women in Wase, Yelwa-shendam and Langtang south local government in Jos. In an interview, Vonnan Dashe, president of the Gani community development association, on 5th November 2004 mentioned that, Women were subjected to violence and hardship because they had to worry about the fate of their children. Some of their children actually got killed and others were wounded while others were raped by the attackers. They were not only physically harassed but also sexually abused and degraded. It was also gathered from our research team that apart from the fact that women were raped, they were also divorced by their husbands, which facilitated a worse emotional stressful and painful condition. The resort to divorce by men whose wives had been sexually abused was a means of dealing with the humiliation acquired from the conflict. EQUAL RIGHTS Even though women were affected greatly by the conflict in obviously negative way, they have been unable to set up networks and support groups to enhance their empowerment in the aftermath of the conflict. This includes the ability to participate in politics and decision making forum. Most of their voices are heard through the voices of men or proxy groups. Women make an important but often unrecognized contribution as peace educators both in families and in their societies. In addressing armed or sectarian conflicts, an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective into all policies and programs should be promoted so that before decisions are taken an analysis is made of the effects on women and men respectively. Action should be taken to promote equal participation and opportunities for women in government both at the Federal, State and Local Government levels. There were hundreds of women mostly dressed in black that took to the streets of Nigerias capital city of Abuja and also the central city of Jos in rallies against the Jos massacre. They subsequently demanded that the government put the necessary infrastructure in place to improve on the protection of women and children. This research journal reveals to a large extent how women are streamlined in the policy making groups, politics and in general, all activities. Yet it has not told the whole story, the impact of conflict on women is too profound to be narrated. Most times, they live with the pain, agony, discomfort and under oppression for the rest of their lives. A lot needs to be done, the bridge that cuts across religious, ethnic and cultural is to have women group work together. However they will need to be empowered through capacity building and enhanced controlled communication before such roles can be played. Women need to be equally represented in organizations so as to be able to contribute adequately in matters and issues that have to do with protection of women and their children during and after such conflicts. CONCLUSION It is clear from all the above that women must be involved in matters that has to do with the protection of women and their children. They must prove to the community that they are also relevant and that equality should be practiced when matters that has to do with them comes up especially in politics and decision making. Women should be courageous and exhibit fearless independence in spite of all odds especially where human right issues are involved. Women are meant to bear the image of the community. In political matters, women should not shy away from their right and their voices must also be heard. In all, this must be the new wave. The culture must evolve.

Friday, January 17, 2020

A Look At Eliyahu Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints Essay

Abstract   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Theory of Constraints was devised by Eli Goldratt. It states that in every organization there is a constraint that slows down its performance.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper will delve on the Theory of Constraints of Eli Goldratt.   A Look At Eliyahu Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Theory of Constraint is a management philosophy originally developed by Eliyahu Goldratt and discussed in his book, The Goal. The basic concept behind the theory is that a chain will always have its weakest connection. In any organization or any complicated system for that matter, there will only be one component of that system that will restrict its capacity to attain its objectives. In order for such system to have any significant progress, the constraint must be located and the entire system must be manipulated with it in consideration (Thomas Group, n.d). Application of the Theory of Constraint   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to the Theory of Constraints, profit-oriented organizations should have at least one constraint that hinders the system from achieving improved performance in connection with its goal. The Theory of Constraints is founded on the premise that the rate of income generation is restricted by at least a single constraining process. Only by enhancing the throughput during bottleneck will the overall process be improved (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In summary, the main components of the Theory of Constraints are: Complex systems should have at least one constraint otherwise it would be earning unlimited income. Constraint, therefore, is defined as anything that restricts the system from improving its performance compared to its goal (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006). Constraints provide systems with an opportunity to develop and improve (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006) Theory of Constraint versus Lean Manufacturing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Lean manufacturing is a concept that is often compared with Goldratt’s Theory of Constraint. Lean manufacturing was derived from the successful method being used by Japanese car maker Toyota. The method received international acclaim through the Womack & Jones book The Machine That Changed The World. Lean manufacturing is focused on elimination of waste (Moore, 1998).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   While TOC and Lean have varying principles, there are certain areas wherein the two philosophies have a commonality (Moore, 1998). In both lean and TOC, the perception of the customer as value is critical. In Lean manufacturing, it is the customer who determines value. In TOC, there is no throughput until the payment for a certain product has been cleared by the bank (Moore, 1998). Lean and TOC both acknowledge the fact that the ultimate goal of any organization is to convert inventory into throughput(Moore, 1998) TOC and lean underscores the importance of flow throughout the system. Both philosophies believes that the flow plays an important role in the system (Moore, 1998). For both TOC and lean manufacturing, the pull of the market dictates the needs for manufacturing. In lean marketing, manufacturing of goods or services will not take place unless there is a demand for it by the customer. In TOC, the pull is the driving force behind the Drum-Buffer-Rope method (Moore, 1998). Lean manufacturing and TOC drives the workers to aspire for perfection or improving their efforts. The role of the workers in the improvement of the system cannot be discounted (Moore, 1998). During the past 25 years, there were three TOC paradigms that were developed namely logistics, global performance measures, and thinking processes. Recently, Boyd and Gupta changed these paradigms into decision making, performance measurement, and organizational mindset (Moss, 2007). The Logistics Paradigm   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The logistics paradigm was derived from the scheduling program called Optimized Production Technology (OPT) which has nine rules (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006): Flow should be balanced rather than capacity The utilization level of non-bottleneck resources is not dependent on its potential but on other constraints within the system Use and activation of a resource are not synonymous to each other One hour lost during the bottleneck translates to an hour lost for the entire system An hour lost at a non-bottleneck is just minor Bottlenecks determine throughput and inventory The transfer batch may not, and in most instances, should not be the same with the process batch. The process batch should vary, not constant Schedules should be determined without looking at all the constraints at the same time. Lead times are the outcomes of a schedule and cannot be determined in advance The Major Steps in the Logistics Paradigm Identifying the constraint. These may involve physical barriers such as physical or managerial (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006). Exploiting the constraint by increasing utilization and efficiency. For instance, physical constraint can be utilized by making it as effective as possible (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006). Subordinating all other processes to the constraint process. This implies that other aspects of the system must support the total effectiveness of the constraint. If the resources that are not causing the constraint are utilized beyond their productivity level, they will not increase the throughput but increase unwanted inventory (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006) Elevating the constraint. If the present constraints are the most crucial elements of the system, implementing rigorous improvement measures will enhance its performance. Improved performance leads to better realization of the potentials of the nonconstraint resources which would lead to an improvement in the overall performance of the system (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006) Rinse and repeat (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006). The implementation of the logistical paradigm is best exemplified in the drum-buffer-rope methodology. There are three concepts worth explaining in this method. The drum refers to the pace at which the constraints operate. The rope establishes the communication between the critical control chains to ensure that they are synchronized. The buffer is the strategically positioned inventory to safeguard the output of the system from that differences that may take place within the system (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006). The drum-buffer-rope technique is a simplified version of its predecessor the Optimized Production Technology (OPT) and the newer Advanced Planning and Scheduling Systems (APS), which are utilized in firms engaged in manufacturing and production (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006). Using the Drum-Buffer-Rope method leads to the synchronization of resources as well as the utilization of materials in an organization. It is worth knowing that resources and materials are used only in a degree that would lead to the capacity of the organization to attain their throughput (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Since random disruptions are likely in any organization, the drum-buffer-rope method will provide a tool for securing total throughput by using Time Buffers, which contains inventories and safeguards constraint schedules from the impact of disruption at non-constraint resources (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The process of using time buffers as a mechanism for effective management and improvement of throughput is called buffer management. It provides details based on planned and actual performance and is utilized for checking the inventory of a protected resource as a comparison for actual and planned performance (Mahapatra & Sahu, 2006). Application of the Logistics Paradigm in Service Firms   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The logistic paradigm or five step processes is applied to various processes and procedures of a service firm. The advantage of a service firm is that it is used to enhance service time, flow of information, as well as in re-engineering administrative functions (Moss, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the military as well as in the medical field, the logistics paradigm is being utilized to generate more sales (Moss, 2007). Drum-Buffer-Rope Method Applied to Manufacturing and Service Firms   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The drum-buffer-rope method of scheduling is applicable in both manufacturing and services sector. In the field of manufacturing, the drum-buffer-rope technique is useful in scheduling equipments. For the service sector, DBR is applicable in scheduling personnel within the organization, setting appointments with customers, and forecasting lead-times for customers (Moss, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Schragenheim and Ronen, DBR should be used in determining problems and flaws that will disrupt the flow of the system. There are suggestions that the drum-buffer-rope method should be used in the management of supply chains (Moss, 2007). Global Performance Measures   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the global performance measure of the Theory of Constraints, all company performance efforts are geared towards the objective of earning money now and in the future. In order to accomplish this, there are three things that should be done. First, increase the throughput. Second, reduce inventory. Third, minimize operation costs (Moss, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Throughput refers to the rate at which the system earns a profit through sales while inventory is the term used to denote the money which the system will invest in buying things which they plan to market and sell. Finally, operational expense which is the money spent by the system in converting inventory to throughput (Moss, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   From these concepts, three global measures have been derived namely net profit, return of investment, and cash flow. Net profit is determined by deducting the operating cost from the throughput. Return of investment or ROI is obtained from the ratio of net profit and inventory. Cash flow, on the other hand, is used as a survival tool. As long as the company has money, they will survive (Moss, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Most companies prefer to have only a few operational measures since this will provide convenience to the company as far as the assessment of the effects of various decisions (Moss, 2007). The Thinking Process   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When it comes to constraints existing in the company, Goldratt identified three important decisions: What to change? What to change to? How to effect the change? In order to provide solutions to these problems, Goldratt devised the thinking process. During the last 10 to 15 years, managerial processes have been at the helm of corporate constraints. This is the purpose of the thinking process (Moss, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One of the strengths of the Theory of Constraint is that it provides various tools and techniques to help companies solve a certain problem. Although each method can be used separately, they can likewise be integrated in order to better answer problems concerning Consensus and Focus, Construction of a Complete Solution, and Communication and Collaboration. For each process, there are different tools that can be used (Focused Performance, n.d). Consensus and Focus The Current Reality Tree (CRT) is a series of logical steps that describes present situations. The aim of CRT is to come up with a cause-effect relationship among unwanted symptoms as well as core conflicts that the company would like to remove (Focused Performance, n.d). Construction of a Complete Solution The Evaporating Cloud. The evaporating cloud or conflict resolution diagram is a logical tool which aims to determine aspects of conflict that generates non-compromise win-win solutions. While its validity is acknowledged, the purpose of the evaporating cloud is to unearth underlying assumptions which turns out to be invalid (Focused Performance, n.d). While the evaporating cloud is already useful by itself, this tool can be integrated with a CRT since the seemingly difficult problems pointed out in the CRT are often the results of underlying conflict (Focused Performance, n.d). Future Reality Tree. The FRT is an effect-cause-effect logic structure which aims to show how recommended changes would have an impact on reality particularly how and why these proposals are expected to create a positive result. It is a paper-based simulator that assesses the ability of the proposed change to produce the desired outcome. Likewise, it is used to test the propensity of the proposed change to generate new and unwanted outcomes (Focused Performance, n.d).   Communication and Collaboration Negative Branch Reservations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are instances when undesirable effects are treated as potential results of a proposal and are often detected by another individual other than the originator of the proposal (Focused Performance, n.d).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   With Negative Branch Reservations (NBR), logical expressions are used to address certain reservations through additional actions that would complete the original proposal and cutting down the â€Å"negative branches† from the proposed FRT (Focused Performance, n.d). Prerequisite Tree.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The prerequisite tree or PRT is a logical structure that describes all the barriers to accomplishing a goal as well as the alternative courses of action. The PRT likewise depicts how certain actions when combined with current reality will achieve new and expected results and why these actions would achieve the required outcomes (Focused Performance, n.d).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Categories of Legitimate Reservation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Categories of Legitimate Reservation is a group of tests used for verifying the cause-effect logic which is at the heart of the Thinking Process. CLRs serve the purpose of scrutinizing and modifying the logical trees (Focused Performance, n.d). The Thinking Process Applied to Manufacturing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The thinking process can be effectively applied to the manufacturing and service sector. For the service sector, the guiding management philosophy should center on improving process. The problem-solving tools of the thinking process provide most of the benefits to the service sector (Moss, 2007). Throughput Accounting   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Throughput accounting, which is based on Eli Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints, plays a major role in management decision making. It changes an organization’s view of income recognition as well as costs and profitability. Thus, throughput accounting is responsible for refining the figures used for making decisions which potentially modifies Management Accounting (Goldratt, n.d). Advantages of Throughput Accounting   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Using throughput accounting as a measurement and decision making tool, organizations can have the following advantages (Goldratt, n.d): Shift their sales efforts on products that will generate more income Make better decisions on which investment will generate more income Come up with decisions that are determined by real effects on the bottom line Develop a clear understanding of the role of sub-systems in the entire system Make realistic efforts regarding the effectiveness of the entire system relative to the goal of the company which is to gain a profit. Most of the distortions that are present in traditional management accounting can be corrected with throughput accounting. Distortions arise as a result of traditional management accounting using similar measures used in judging an entire system or organization as well as daily decisions by dividing the system into sub-systems and activities (Goldratt, n.d).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Throughput accounting is a substitute to cost accounting. It is not derived from standard costing or Activity-Based Costing. It is not concerned with costing or allocation of costs to products and services but rather as a strategy for maximizing profits. The main objective of throughput accounting is to hasten the velocity at which products are moved in a company by removing bottlenecks (Puthran, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Throughput accounting helps enhance a company’s profit performance through improved management decisions (Puthran, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Usually management decisions are based on assessing the impact of proposals on the throughput, investment, and operating expense. In a traditional management accounting, the cost of any proposal is commonly the initial and sometimes the only thing being considered, which results to poor decisions on the part of the management (Puthran, 2006). The Basis of Throughput Accounting   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Throughput accounting is based on the fact that there are bottlenecks in organizations. Microsoft Encarta defines bottleneck â€Å"a delay in progress due to one part of the process or system being slower than the others which results to the delay in the overall process.† (Microsoft Encarta) What are the Factors used by throughput accounting in computing income and expenses? Throughput is the rate at which the process or system generate â€Å"goal units.† When the â€Å"goal units† involves money, the throughput is derived by deducting the price of raw materials with the income generated from the sale. However, throughput is only applicable to activities that involves selling products or services. Warehouse manufacturing is not included in throughput accounting (Puthran, 2006). Investment is the money associated with the process or system. It includes inventories, equipments, infrastructure or facilities, and other assets and liabilities (Puthran, 2006). Operating expenses refers to the money which the system uses in purchasing â€Å"goal units.† In the case of tangible products, the operating cost includes all the expenses with the exception of the price of raw materials. Operating expenses includes cost of maintenance, utilities, rental expenses, taxes, payroll, among others (Puthran, 2006).   Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Eli Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints states that in a complex organization, there will be instances when constraints will slow down the entire process. In order to for the system to achieve its overall performance, the constraint hindering the entire system should be removed from the equation. References Mahapatra, S.S., & Sahu, A (2006 July 27). Application of Theory of Constraints on Scheduling of Drum-Buffer-Rope System. The Apache Jakarta Project. Retrieved August 9 2008 from Moore, R (1998). Theory of Constraints and Lean Manufacturing: Friends or Foes? Chonnam National University. Retrieved August 9 2008 from Moss, H (2007 March 1). Improving Service Quality With The Theory of Constraints. All Retrieved August 9 2008 from Problem Solving with the TOC Thinking Processes – Consensus, Construction, Communication and Collaboration (n.d). Focused Performance. Retrieved August 9 2008 from Puthran, S (2006 December 17). Throughput Accounting. Management Accountant. Retrieved August 9 2008 from Theory of Constraints (n.d). Thomas Group. Retrieved August 9 2008 from Throughput Accounting (n.d). Goldratt. Retrieved August 9 2008 from   

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Raymond Carvers Cathedral Essay - 1098 Words

Raymond Carvers Cathedral Raymond Carver utilizes his character of the husband, who is also the narrator, in his short story Cathedral. From the beginning of the story the narrator has a negative personality. He lacks compassion, has a narrow mind, is detached emotionally from others, and is jealous of his wifes friendship with a blind man named Robert. He never connects with anyone emotionally until the end of this story. At the beginning of the story the husband is telling of a blind man coming to visit him and his wife. The narrator?s wife had worked for the blind man at one point. Since then they have maintained a strong friendship and keep in touch with tapes. The narrator talks about not looking forward to the blind†¦show more content†¦Also, the narrator is jealous of his wife?s friendship with Robert because he is insecure about his own relationship with her. When the narrator has the opportunity to listen to one of the blind man?s tapes he is interrupted and never gets to finish listening to the tape. The narrator says, maybe it was just as well. I?d heard all I wanted to. This really shows that the blind man offended him, not because of something rudely said, but because of he was jealous of their emotional bond. Another way the narrator comes across negatively is because he is so detached from emotional interaction with other people. It seems that the narrator views things as only happening around him, not to him. His wife says, You don?t have any friends. Period. Besides not having any friends he does not even have a strong emotional bond with his wife. The narrator probably feels lonely having no one to talk to. The narrator again shows a lack of compassion when he thinks Robert was left with a small insurance policy and half of a twenty-peso Mexican coin. The other half of the coin went into the box with her [his late wife Beulah]. Pathetic. The way he refers to Beulah?s casket as the box and views their emotional bond as pathetic shows his complete lack of compassion. He does not even refer to the blind man by his name, Robert, until this point, but the fact that he finallyShow MoreRelatedEssay on Raymond Carvers Cathedral832 Words   |  4 PagesThe narrator in Raymond Carvers Cathedral has two fully functional eyes, in which he chooses never to use to their full potential. The eyes of the narrator are biased, insecure, jealous, and very limited in what they choose to see. This inability to see is made apparent when he is forced to meet and converse with a blind man. The narrators perception of the world around him, and blurred vision, is resolved by a great irony in the story when R oger helps the narrator see past his prejudice outlookRead MoreThe Theme Of Blindness In Raymond Carvers Cathedral745 Words   |  3 PagesIn Raymond Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral† the narrator is seen to show ignorance and bias towards blindness throughout the story, however towards the end he realizes his flaws and the difference between looking and seeing. From the beginning of the story to the end you can see a change within the narrator after his encounter with the blind man. At the end of Raymond Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral† the narrator hopes to accomplish a change in his understanding of himself, and his experience with Robert flickers this changeRead MoreThe Blind Man In Raymond Carvers Cathedral701 Words   |  3 PagesRaymond Carver’s short story â€Å"Cathedral† shows the interaction of two men, one physically blind and one prejudiced, with contrasting personalities. Overall, the story illustrates how having a closed mind is much more debilitating than permanently closed eyes. Carver tends to revolve his stories around the bleak lives of middle class members and the situations they face; this could be due to his personal life as an alcoholic, who struggled to support his family. â€Å"Cathedral† embodies certain aspectsRead MoreStereotypes in Raymond Carvers Cathedral Essay1335 Words   |  6 Pagesin some way or another and uses them in social interactions. These generalizations, both positive and negative, about a characteristic(s) of a group (â€Å"Stereotypes) have existed throughout modern and historical societies. The husband in Raymond Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral† interacts with Robert based off of stereotypes formed from social norms and media portrayals of disabled persons. He treats Robert in a negative manner at first relying on those prejudices, but as he comes to know Robert, he re-developsRead More The Character of the Husband in Raymond Carvers Story Cathedral1108 Words   |  5 PagesThe Character of the Husband in Raymond Carvers Story Cathedral In Raymond Carvers Cathedral, the husbands view of blind men is changed when he encounters his wifes long time friend, Robert. His narrow minded views and prejudice thoughts of one stereotype are altered by a single experience he has with Robert. The husband is changed when he thinks he personally sees the blind mans world. Somehow, the blind man breaks through all of the husbands jealousy, incompetence for discernmentRead MoreTheme, Theme And Epiphary In Raymond Carvers Cathedral1051 Words   |  5 Pagescomponents to literature. Three major components in any work of literature are plot, theme, an epiphany. In the short story â€Å"Cathedral† by Raymond Carver plot, theme, and epiphany are exhibited in a myriad of ways. With the use of these literary concepts, this paper will analyze Raymond Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral† Plot refers to the sequence of events in literary works. In â€Å"Cathedral†, the plot is displayed in many ways. The story is narrated by a man called Bub whose wife invites an old friend to visitRead More Blind Faith in Raymond Carvers Cathedral Essay920 Words   |  4 PagesBlind Faith in Raymond Carvers Cathedral      Ã‚   In the story Cathedral by Raymond Carver, the main character, goes through a major personal transformation.   At the beginning of the story, his opinions of others are filled with stereotypes, discrimination and prejudice.   Through interaction with his wifes blind friend Robert, his attitude and outlook on life changes.   Although at first he seemed afraid to associate with a blind man, Roberts outgoing personality left him with virtually noRead MoreMain Characters In Cathedral By Raymond Carvers Cathedral1174 Words   |  5 PagesThe title of the story is â€Å"Cathedral†, which was published in 1983. The author of the story is Raymond Carver who was an American, born in Oregon, that lived from 1938 until 1988. There are three main characters in the story. There is the husband, who was not named, that narrates the entire story. He seems to be very jealous of the blind man and uneasy about his visit to his home. There is the wife, who is also unnamed, that is very excited for the blind man to visit her home since she has not seenRead MoreCharacter Analysis OfCathedral By Raymond Carvers Cathedral1121 Words   |  5 Pagesdied and he came to visit the unnamed narrator and wife (Carver p.32-35). Once Robert walked through the door his appearance and personality surprised the narrator greatly. In Raymond Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral† the narrator is constantly judging Robert because of his disability. The narrators’ analysis of the blind in â€Å"Cathedral† is somewhat harsh and very comparable to the critiques that are given to the blind today. The unnamed wife met Robert in Seattle a couple summers previously when she was on theRead MoreAnalysis Of Bias In Carvers Cathedral By Raymond Carver1290 Words   |  6 Pagesintroduced in Raymond Carver’s Cathedral. He highlights how perception can affect the way people interact and communicate with each other for the first time. In the short story, the narrator himself is blind to the emotions of the people around him and eschews any form of self-reflection until the very end. He is envious of the blind man, who shares an intimate relationship with the narrator’s wife. However, the blind man is depicted as insightful and personal. Carver discloses in Cathedral that Robert

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder And Positive Psychology Essay

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Positive Psychology LaQuita Smith-Garcia Clinical Psychopharmacology Spring 2015 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Positive Psychology The topic I chose to write about is Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the Evidence Based Practice (EBP) of positive psychology. PTSD is a disorder that is usually diagnosed in children over the age of six to adulthood according to the American Psychiatric Association (2013), fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Certain criteria have to be met in order for a patient to be diagnosed with PTSD due to its close relation to other psychiatric disorders. The history of the patient’s exposure to traumatic events has to be taken into consideration as well as the patients symptoms such as avoidance, mood changes, arousal/hypervigilance, and intrusive thoughts after the traumatic event. The length of time that the symptoms has been occurring has to be assessed as well as how well the patient is functioning day to day. The last part of diagnosis is assessing whether the patients sympt oms are due to other medical/mental disorders or possible substance abuse. Once these things have been ruled out, a proper diagnosis of PTSD may be established so the proper treatment plan can be incorporated for the patient to get adequate care. The stigma attached to seeking help for PTSD was once one of the biggest reasons for a soldier to sit inShow MoreRelatedPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Or As Many Know By The1669 Words   |  7 PagesPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or as many know by the abbreviation PTSD, is a complex mental issue that affects several every day. People that know of post-traumatic stress disorder tend to connect it to military personnel. In recent years, PTSD has been diagnosed in people who have endured other types of high-stress experiences as well (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)). In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) added PTSD to the third edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical ManualRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Dissorder Es say1155 Words   |  5 PagesPost Traumatic Stress Disorder, abbreviated as PTSD is an anxiety disorder that disrupts an individual’s memory, emotions, intellect as well as nervous response usually as a result of an extremely frightening, life threatening traumatic experience on oneself or another person usually. The experience may be harming physically or psychologically causing an interference with ones ability to cope with experiences that resemble the original trauma. The major symptoms characterizing PTSD include; anxietyRead MoreThe Poverty Of The United States1147 Words   |  5 Pagesget out of the vicious cycle. Advancing Science, Serving Society’s magazine, Science, did a report on the psychology of poverty. In this article, it states, â€Å"In addition to happiness and life satisfaction, poverty is also more broadly related to mental health. According to the 2003 World Health Report, the poorest population quintiles in rich countries exhibit a depression and anxiety disorder prevalence that is 1.5 to 2 times as high as that of the richest quintiles†. This shows that poorer peopleRead MoreMusic Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder1587 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Traumatic experiences can cause sever anxiety and affective disorders in those that are affected. PTSD, or Post-traumatic stress disorder is such a disorder. This disorder is characterized by over sensitized arousal, hyper-vigilance, or exaggerated startle res ponse. (Clark, 1997, pp. 27) This disorder can create problems with feeling and expressing normal emotions, and controlling anger and anxiety. Music therapy can help those affected with PTSD and other anxiety disorders by helping themRead More Person Centered Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 1203 Words   |  5 Pagesit, such as; treating symptoms and not the underlying cause of an illness. The theories that will be discussed are Carl Roger’s theory of Person Centered Therapy, Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and how they would treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In Person Centered therapy, the therapist establishes a solid therapeutic alliance with the client. â€Å"The therapeutic alliance is a more encompassing term for therapy that emphasizes the collaborative nature of the partnershipRead MoreThe Effects Of Eye Movement Reprocessing And Desensitization1596 Words   |  7 Pages Lone Star College - CyFair The Effects of Eye Movement Reprocessing and Desensitization in Posttraumatic Stress Victims Kaitlyn Schenk PSYC 2301.5012 Laura Renee October 19, 2016 An estimated 5.2 million adults will suffer from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) every year. Every PTSD victim encounters different experiences and symptoms that coincide with their trauma. Many forms of treatment and coping mechanisms have been attempted in the past decade to produce relief. There haveRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )934 Words   |  4 PagesPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD has been one of the most critical issues for military veterans for decades. Most veterans who deployed have seen or experienced traumatic stressful events which can eventually develop to PTSD. They might not recognize the symptoms of the PTSD. They might not know how to react to the situation and how it can affect them in the long run. Since some of them may not know the symptoms of PTSD; therefore, they might not even know that they have PTSD. On the otherRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1570 Words   |  7 PagesAn estimated 5. 2 million adults will suffer from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) every year. Every PTSD victim encounters different experiences and symptoms that coincide with their trauma. Many forms of treatment and coping mechanisms have been attempted in the past decade to produce relief. There have been a few successful forms or treatment and there have also been treatment routes that have been detrimental to the success and overcoming of victims’ symptoms. Eye Movement DesensitizationRead MoreEssay on Trauma and Positive Psychology1943 Words   |  8 Pages To understand positive psychology and trauma, one must first understand what each term means. First, positive psychology is the study and focus on the best in human behavior. It is a fairly new perspective being observed and used by psychologists from all over the world. The goal of positive psychology is to study and promote conditions that can help people to achieve happy, healthy, and productive lifestyles. It is derived f rom research and theories from many areas of psychology and tying themRead MoreResearch Based Interventions Paper1727 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ Research- Based Intervention on Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder Erica Mariscal Vigil PSYCH 650 Dr. Harry Beaman 05/25/15 Research- Based Intervention on Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder According to Butcher, Mineka, and Hooley (2013), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), is a â€Å"disorder that occurs following an extreme traumatic event, in which a person re-experiences the event, avoids reminders of the trauma, and exhibits persistent increased arousal†. An example may be, a person who